Use of anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccines in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): A review


African elephants, anti-GnRH vaccine, behaviour, aggression, androgens, semen, ultrasound, reproductive organs, anoestrus


Background: Androgen-related aggressive behaviour and musth cause serious problems in captive African elephant bulls and often lead to human and animal injuries, and damage to property.

Objectives: To review the work carried out with anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccines to control androgen-related behaviour and fertility in captive and free-ranging elephant bulls and the induction of anoestrus in elephant cows.

Method: In the first study, an anti-GnRH vaccine from Pepscan was tested in six bulls (four captive and two free-ranging). Once the vaccine Improvac® became available, the effect on behaviour, the reproductive organs and semen quality was tested. Improvac® was also used to attempt induction of anoestrus in elephant cows.

Results: The first study proved that aggressive behaviours are significantly associated with increased faecal androgen concentrations. Musth (n = 1) and aggressive behaviour (n = 2) were down regulated and correlated with a decline in faecal androgen concentrations. Aggression and musth could be controlled with Improvac® (600 µg), but were more consistent when the dose was increased to 1000 µg administered every five to six months. The same dose down regulated testicular function and bulls (n = 17) were rendered infertile within 12 months after commencement of treatment. Initial attempts to induce anoestrous with 600 µg in free-ranging elephant cows gave inconclusive results, but 1000 µg in captive cows delivered five-monthly was successful.

Conclusion: The treatment of elephant bulls with Improvac® resulted in the successful down-regulation of androgen-related behaviour and sperm production in captive and wild elephant bulls of various ages (? 34 years). Preliminary studies to induce anoestrus in cows with Improvac® appear to be successful.


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How to Cite

Use of anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccines in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): A review. (2018). Bothalia, African Biodiversity & Conservation, 48(2). Retrieved from